Nowadays, the Israeli-Palestinian issue has become a center of tension worldwide, influencing countries,
including major world powers. Britain played a major role in creating this tension between these nations. After World War I, when the division of the Ottoman Empire occurred, Britain took mandates over Iraq and Palestine. Subsequently, to gain favor with the Jewish population, Britain decided to establish a homeland for Jews in Palestine through the Balfour Declaration. Following this declaration, Jewish migration to Palestine began.”
within the cabinet and consultations with Jewish leaders, the decision was made public in a letter from British Foreign Secretary Lord Arthur James Balfour to Lord Walter Rothschild. The contents of this letter became known as the Balfour Declaration. ( Jewish virtual library)After the establishment of the UN, Israel gained more power. Two years after its creation, the UN passed a
resolution, the ‘Partition Resolution in November 1947,’ which legally allowed Jews to live according to their own wishes in Palestine.
“The question of Palestine was first brought before the General Assembly in 1947. By resolution 181 (II), the Assembly decided to partition Palestine into two states, one Arab and one Jewish, with Jerusalem placed under a special international regime. ( United Nations)
The British announced their withdrawal from Palestine, and on the same night, Israel declared itself an
independent state. Shortly thereafter, President Harry S Truman of the United States recognized Israel as an independent state and People in Israel celebrated Nakba Day, during which Palestinians were displaced from their own homes and land.” The State of Israel was established on May 14, 1948, leading to the initiation of the first Arab-Israeli War. Although the conflict concluded in 1949 with Israel emerging victorious, it resulted in the displacement of 750,000 Palestinians. The region was subsequently partitioned into three areas: the State of Israel, the West Bank (along the Jordan River), and the Gaza Strip.
The primary source of tension between two nations revolves around Jerusalem, which was designated as a separate internationalized territory. Presently, the city is divided into West Jerusalem, predominantly inhabited by Jews, and East Jerusalem, where a majority of the population is Palestinian. Israel gained control of East Jerusalem and the West Bank after the Six-Day War in 1967, a move unrecognized by the international community. The Old City in occupied East Jerusalem holds religious significance for Christians, Muslims, and Jews, housing the Al-Aqsa Mosque compound, acknowledged by Muslims as al-Haram al-Sharif and by Jews as Temple Mount. Despite Israel’s annexation declaration of East Jerusalem in 1980, the international community still considers it an occupied territory. Palestinians aspire to establish East Jerusalem as the capital of their future state.
After the 1948 war, the Assembly by resolution 194 (III) of 1949 established the Conciliation Commission for Palestine (UNCCP) to help the parties reach a final settlement, while reaffirming the rights of Palestine refugees to return and restitution. UNRWA, a Palestine refugee agency, was established by the Assembly the same year (United Nations)
In 1993, the Palestinian-Israeli declaration of principles established different sub-committees to address the issue of refugees. In 2001, Israel and Palestine began negotiations on the implementation of UN Resolution 194, which aimed to allow Palestinian refugees to return and receive restitution. However, after negotiations, Israel did not accept the rights of the refugees and refused to acknowledge that the disputed areas belonged to the Palestinians. These people demanded that Israel recognize their historical connection to this place, insisting that it rightfully belonged to them. Despite this, Israel did not accept these claims but allowed a certain number of refugees to return initially. Over time, Israel rejected all peace negotiations, leading to ongoing problems with the Palestinians. The international community attempted to resolve the issues between these two states, but their efforts failed. Currently, the situation has escalated, leading to a war where Israel has been accused of committing genocide against Palestinians. South Africa brought charges against Israel in the International Court of Justice, but these
attempts to resolve the conflict have proven unsuccessful, and the war persists, resulted in the tragic loss of many Palestinian lives, including children.”