By Agalar Abbasbeyli
After the collapse of the USSR, Russia, which declared itself the legal successor of it, counted upon automatically maintaining hegemony over the other former Soviet republics. Instead of helping the newly independent states of the South Caucasus, it has sought to make use of the conflicts in the region to strengthen its geostrategic position. However, the United States have joined in the struggle for spheres of influence in the South Caucasus, which military action in Iraq helped to create a geostrategic foothold in the Middle East, the misuse of the proximity of the South Caucasus. The entire South Caucasus became an arena of rivalry between Russia, US, Turkey and Iran. Responsibility for Interests and aspirations of the peoples living in the South Caucasus have the coordinated positions of all states in the region, elimination of hotbeds of conflict in the territory of Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, the transformation of the Caucasus into a zone of peace and cooperation.
In modern conditions, when the socialist system ceased to exist and the international community is to unify – the market economy, the world is becoming much more manageable. Of course, there remains the term “developing countries”, which sooner or later will go along the capitalist path of development. Now, more than ever, in full compliance with the objective laws of human development, it is necessary to look for ways of mutually beneficial cooperation of the states located in different regions and at different levels of socio-political development. And interaction of these factors can be very different. We need a differentiated approach to each region, in particular the Caucasus, where four subjects of international law are located. For the national and international security of Russia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia we should seek common ground, not contradiction, which can lead to unpredictable consequences.
The ХХ century is full of such facts and let protect the XXI century from these phenomena. In this regard, the preservation of peace depends on the internal situation and foreign policy of the young sovereign states formed on the ruins of the Soviet Union. The world has not realized yet, what may be happening, if all leave for the so-called “great powers.” In this case, the USA and the Russian Federation play this role, considering the states as the area of their geo-strategic interests. At the same time it rejected the analogy from the history of other countries and empires. The above mentioned can be confirmed by the desire of Russia to have Vietnam and Cuba, Syria and Iran, South Caucasus and Central Asia in its geo-strategic interests. The logic is simple, because Russia declared itself the legal successor of the Soviet Union took over all the assets and liabilities of the Soviet Union. A named republics and regions were part of the Soviet sphere of influence. The changing balance of power in favor of a universal system of capitalism, promotes peace and understanding.
However for making Caucasus a zone of peace and cooperation, firstly, extinguish hotbeds of conflict in the territory of Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia. Secondly, to restore the territorial integrity and sovereignty of all countries of the Caucasus. Without this it is impossible to provide political and economic cooperation between four the countries. After solving these problems in geo-perspective should be created Caucasian Common Market and International Caucasian Bank of Development and Reconstruction. This would contribute to the integration of the Caucasian countries, like the European Union, in turn, economic relations would have a huge impact on the stability and security throughout the region. All this will help to establish economic, cultural, scientific, and then the political relations between the countries of the region, cities, regions, scientific and industrial centers. Implementation of such measures – would lead to a duty-free and visa-free zone in the Caucasus, there should be formed a kind of “Schengen” zone of cooperation. In perspective they would have a single currency.
However, despite the obvious benefits for everyone in the Caucasus Region, it is impossible to implement. What is the reason? The reason is that while the Republic of Armenia, with support from the outside, keeps under its occupation 20 percent of the national territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan, there cannot be a common Caucasian home. On the other hand, this will not happen until then the territorial integrity of Georgia will be restored. And finally, until there is not established stability in the North Caucasus.
The delicacy of the affected problems is in that, it affects the interests of many countries and people living in the Caucasus. There will be successes and failures. The main thing with all this diversity, do not let anyone and anywhere undermine overall Caucasian House. Caucasian peoples living as neighbors for centuries and they are able peacefully solve all the problems here.
*The writer is a Professor of Historical and Political Sciences, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Head of the Department of International Relations, Baku State University, Azerbaijan.